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The Major Alqonquin* Nations
Throughout North America and What They Call Themselves

this material © 2000 Evan Pritchard
revised © 2002

The term "Algonquin" was apparently introduced to the world by Samuel de Champlain in 1603, typically, by mistake. He was referring to a specific group of Native Americans he had encountered at Tadoussac, which the Malecite had told him were "Elaegomogwik," which means either, "These people are our allies," or "The people on the other shore." Champlain mispronounced it "Algoumekin" which later became Algonquin, and this is the name still used today to refer to the nation of the (misnamed) Ottawa River. Those people call themselves "Anishnabek," which has been translated as "The Good Men." They also call themselves "Mamawinini," or nomadic people. In hindsight, it would have been better if Champlain had called this large group of related peoples "Manitou-wisiwag," or "the people who follow the ways of Manitou," for this word for Great Spirit is unique to their culture and common to all "Algonquian" languages.

One band of "Anishinabe-Algonkians," the Kiche-sipi-rini" or "People of the Great River," were possibly the first of this ancient culture to settle down in one place, Allumette Island. Allumette is the largest island in the Ottawa River, the river which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec, and there is evidence of sedentary Anishinabe-Algonkian settlements there going back at least 6,280 years, and occupation in the area dating back 7,000 years as it became inhabitable after the Ice Age. From this power base in the center of the trade route, their influence and language spread throughout North America. Hence they have been called "The First People." Their relatives a few miles to the east who settled at Oka may be yet more ancient, and habitation in the Micmac region may go back 11,000 years, but all are of a common origin. Nonetheless, Allumette Island was a turning point in the civilization.

There is little doubt that the Anishinabe-Algonkians of Allumette are the direct descendants of the so-called "Clovis" people, long considered the oldest group of Native Americans. Clovis points have been found close to the borders of Quebec, in Maine, Vermont, New York, Nova Scotia and Ontario. Clovis roots date back at least to 14,000 years ago when the glaciers forced them to make present-day New Mexico their home. However, whether they came across the Bering Strait 20,000 years ago, or came up from South America via Mexico is now being debated. The campsite found at Cactus Hill, Virginia, around 16,000 years old, is now thought by many to be proto-Algonquin in character.

At the time of European contact, cousins of the Anishnabe language could be found from coast to coast and from the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of Mexico. This large and diverse cultural and linguistic group was termed "Algonquin" in 1891 by John Wesley Powell and the name stuck. It is taken to mean "The First People."

According to Captain John Smith and others, the term used by natives in the 1600s for the original root language was "Algonkeen." (Elaegomkeen?) Algonquin is probably a French spelling of that same word. The ending kee is a suffix in that root language which means "place" or "land" (short for ha-kee), though keen has no meaning in Algic tongues.

The following is an outline of those languages and dialects as they were named and recorded by the first Europeans to write down their encounters with native people. The groupings in sevens are the author's own, based on oral histories and library research. The seven major hoops are Wabanaki (or Northeastern), New England, Lenni-Lenape (including Southeastern), Cree, Great Lakes, Prairie Nations, and Western Plains. This is an approximation, illustrating the ancient teaching that the Anishinabe-Algonkian people were created by seven sparks emanating from seven fires (which emanated from the original fire as described in the Gluskap story). These seven sparks (nations) each gave birth to other sparks (nations). There are eighty-four major Anishinabe-Algonkian nations which have played a significant role in history as we know it. Also listed here are some of the off-spring hoops, or sub-nations, that are less well known. That this process still goes on today illustrates the old saying "Creation is happening now!"

("People of the Dawn"). A hoop of seven great nations, each with their own sub-groups. The formal Wabanaki Confereracy of the 1800s was short-lived
and did not include each of the nations.

Micmac (L dialect) (from Meegamooatch "We Are All Related By Blood") or Mi'kmaq ("My Kinfolk) (sometimes also translated as "Allies"). The seven council districts are Gespegeoag, Sigenigeoag, Epegoitg ag Pigtogeog, Gespogoitg (aka Souriquois), Segepenegatig, Esgigeoag, and Onamagi.

Maliseet (L dialect) ("They Talk Differently") aka "Etchemin" the people of the sandy berries.

Abenaki (L dialect) ("Dawn Land People") The Abenaki Confederacy could be said to include seven bands: the Casco ("Muddy"), the Kennebec (aka Canabas, "Long Water Land"), the Norridgewock ("Where The Swift Water Descends"), the Pejepscot, the Saco ("Outflowing"), the Wawenock, and the Sokoki. The Ammonousucs, Arosaguntacooks, Kikomkwaks, and Nulheganocks were subtribes of the Sokoki. The Arosaguntacook or Androscoggin ("Fish Curing Place") were subtribes of Norridgewock. The Ossipee ("Rocky River") and the Pequaket were subtribes of the Saco.

Passamaquoddy (L dialect) ("Place Where Pollock Are Plentiful"), closely related to the Maliseet.
Penobscot (L dialect) ("Place Where The Rocks Widen" or "It Flows On White Rocks" or "White Water on the Rocks"), same language as "Eastern Abenaki."

Montagnais (N dialect) (French for "Mountain People"). They call themselves Innu.

Naskapi (N dialect) "People from Where It [The Land] Disappears"). They also call themselves Innu people. The Innu language is closer to Cree than the other Wabanaki languages. One could say the Montagnais and Naskapi are one nation, the Innu, but then it is equally true that the Abenaki are made up of two nations, usually referred to as Western Abenaki and Eastern Abenaki. Either way, there are still seven.
The Montagnais circle of nations include the Tadoussacien, the Kakouchak, the Chekoutimien, the Nekoubaniste, the Chomonchouaniste, the Oumatachinrini and possibly the Oupapinachiouek. The Naskapi hoop includes the Oukesestigouek, the Oukesestigouek, the Chisedech, the Bersiamites, the Ouneskapi, the Oumamiouek, the Outakouamiouek, the Attikiriniouetch, the Mouchaouaouastiiriniouek, and the Outabitibec.

There were seven great confederacies in the New England area south of the Wabanaki, which together formed one great hoop of related nations. These confederacies often exchanged member nations, or absorbed others as neighboring confederacies dispursed. This information has been influenced by several sources, particularly the book Ninnuock (The People) by Steven F. Johnson, and on Bert Salwen's dialect map, "Indians of Southern New England and Long Island, Early Period," published in Handbook of North American Indians, Northeast, Volume 15, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.,1978, edited by B. G. Trigger.

Pennacook Confederacy (L dialect). Their seven nations are:
The Pennacook ("At The Foot of the Hill" or "Where the Path is Narrow"), Concord, NH area. Also called Merrimac ("Much Food" or "Rapids"), the Agawam ("Lowland" or "Overflowed By Water"), the Amoskeag aka Namoskeag ("Fishing Place"), the Nashua ("Where The River Divides" or "The Land Between"), the Souhegan (Southwest, or variation on Squawkheag: "Watching to Spear Fish"), the Wamesit ("There Is Plenty of Room for All"), and theWinnipesaukee (possibly "Land of FineWater" or "Land of Good Fishing Waters").

Johnson also includes the Naumkeag, ("Eel Place"), Agamenticus, Cocheco, Coos (Pine Trees), Naticook, Newichewannock, Ossipee, Pawtucket, Pemigewasset, Pentucket, Pequaket, Piscataqua, Saco, ("Outlet") and Squaukheag as members of this group at some time.

Massachusett Confederacy (N dialect). Its now-scattered nations included:
Massachusett ("Great Blue Hill"). It is said that the hill which is southeast of Boston, got its name because of all the blueberries that used to grow upon it. In 1650, the noble and dignified Massachusett people were captured as slaves and sent to Jamaica, where they still exist as a cultural/ethnic group. Also included are: Nahant, Nashoba ("Between the Rivers"), Neponset ("Early Summer"), Norwottuck ("Far From Us"), Punkapoag ("Shallow Fresh Water Pond"), Quabaug ("Red Fish Pond"), Saugus ("Small Outlet"), Shawmut ("He Goes There By Water"), Wachusett ("Little Hill Place"), Wessagusset ("At the Small [Hidden?] Salt Water Cove") and Winnisemit ("Fine Spring"). Twelve in all.

The Agawam and Nashua tribes went from the Pennacook to the Massachusett Confederacy during hard times for the Pennacook. The Pocumtuck ("A Narrow Swift Current") were also part of the Massachusett for a while. The Nonantum were an important Massachusett nation, but are overlooked by most text books, and little is known of them.

Wampanoag Confederacy. The Wampanoag ("People of the First Light" or "People of White Wampum"), aka Massasoit, after Chief Massasoit, spoke an "N" dialect, still spoken by those living in exile in the Bahamas. Also included in their numbers are the Pokanokets ("At or Near The Cleared Lands"), Nemaskets ("Fishing Place"), Munponsets, Pocassets ("Where the Stream Widens," similar to Paugasset), Sakonnets ("Abode of the Black Goose"), Patuxets (or Pawtuxets, "At the Little Falls" or "Place of the Round-footed Ones [wolves]"). The Manamets ("A Place of Portage"), Masnipi, Mashpee ("Great Water"), Matachees, Nobsquassets ("At The Rock Ledge Cliff"), Monomoys ("Deep Black Mire"), Nausets ("At the Place Between"), Sokones (part of Mashpees, could mean "Of the South"), Capawicks ("Enclosed Harbor" or "Place of Refuge"), Shawmut and Tommokomoth could also be included, bringing the number to eighteen.

Narragansett Confederacy. The Narragansett ("On A Small Cape"/ "At a Small Narrow Point") spoke a variation of the N dialect. Also in the confederacy of seven were the Eastern Niantic (Rhode Island coast and Connecticut: "Point of Land On The Tidal Estuary" or "Tidal Land") who spoke a "Y/N" mixed dialect, Cowweset ("At the Pine Tree Place"), Manisses, Shawomet (possibly "Spring of Water"), Wabaquasset ("The Place We Make Mats for House Coverings"), and the Wunashowatuckoog ("Where The River Splits"). Pawtuxets ("Small Waterfalls at the Estuary") were affiliated with both Narragansett and Wampanoag and spoke an N dialect.

Pocumtuck Confederacy. The Pocumtuck probably spoke the Nipmuk-type of the L dialect. Their allies included mostly those from other groupings, including Agawam (from Penn.), Norwottuck (from Mass.), Podunck (from Pequot), Squawkheag (who were also affiliated with Penn. and Sokoki). The Tunxis and Wangunk were also with the Pequot. The Pocumtuck tribal seat was in present-day Deerfield, Massachusetts.
Nipmuk Nations. The Nipmuk speak an L dialect. This alliance included the Nipmuk ("People of the Freshwater Fishing Place"), Wachusett, and Quabaugs (from Mass.), Nashuas (from Penn.), Quinebaugs (from Pequot), Wabaquassets (from Narr.), Hassanamissits ("Sandbar"), Wunnashowatuckoogs ("Where the River Splits"), Wusquowhannanawkits ("Pidgeon Country"), and Awashacom.

Pequot Confederacy ("The Destroyers", however more likely from "Pequa-ta-noag" "People of the shallow water")The "Y" dialect Pequot language group might be considered to include the Pequots, the Mohegans ("Wolf People"), who split off from Pequots in 1637, the Montauk (from Narr.), the Western Niantic (from Narr.), the Wunnashowatuckoog (Narr.), the Wusquowhannanawkit (from Nipmuk), and Unquachaug.. Of these seven nations, only the Mohegan and Pequot were part of the confederacy. The other five nations of the political confederacy are associated with the R dialect of the Renneiu/Quiripi type: Quinebaug ("Long Pond"), Quinnipiac ("Where We Change Our Route"), Tunxis ("Fast flowing stream"), Podunk ("A Swampy Place" aka "Where You Sink in the Mire"), and Wangunk. The Mohegan assert that the Pequot (and therefore themselves) are descendants of the Mahicans as well, hence the choice of tribal name. Another explanation is that Chief Uncas, who founded the Mohegans, had several wives who were Mohican, (N dialect) and so his offspring are Mohegans (Mohicans) whereas the Pequot are not.

Connecticut Mohican Relations: The Pequamocks, Potatucks, Cupheags, Quinnipiacs, ("Where we change our route") Paugusset ("Where The River Widens"), Pequannocks ("Battlefield" or "Slaughter-place"), Wangunks, Tunxis, and the Podunks, were Renneiu speakers, however, they share strong Mohican cultural roots.

(L dialect; "Ordinary Speakers," or "Real People")
According to some traditions, there were twelve clans in the Lenape nations. The three major nations of the Lenape Confederacy (aka "Delaware Confederacy") were of these twelve, each with their own sub-tribes: (The sub-tribes are in small type). The three lost boys of the Lenape creation stories who were rescued by Maysingway and showed their future home by taking one of them on a ride in the sky may have represented these three nations. The homeland he showed them may have been Lenape-Hoking, the middle Atlantic seaboard.

The three powerful "Grandfather" nations were (and still are, though their peoples are now mostly intermarried), Munsie, wolf "totem" (ptuksi, or round foot); Unami, turtle "totem" (pakoango, or "the crawler") Unalatchtgo, turkey "totem" (pullaeu, or "he does not chew"). It is believed that the Lenape are the descendants of some of the oldest Algonquin groups.

Some scholars, such as Herbert C. Kraft, have stated that the association of the three grandfathers with the three animal clans, wolf, turtle and turkey are later additions, however most Lenape today are familiar with them, and have various ways of explaining their meaning. Kraft also questions the existence of a formal "Unalatchtgo" nation, but I think this is a technicality.

Munsee (Muncie or Monsey, wolf "totem". Literally, "The People of Stony Country," as their territory starts north of the Raritan River, above the glacial moraine)
The best known of the Munsee-speaking people are the Esopus, "Little River"-Upper West Hudson Valley) the Minisinks ("Island Place"-Delaware River), and possibly those of what is now northern New Jersey and Rockland County, New York, some of whom mixed in with the Ramapough Nation. The Esopus had five sub-tribes: Waoranecks, Warranawonkongs, Mamekotings, Wawarsinks, and Katskills.

The "Manhattan" Indians are sometimes considered a Munsee sub-group, sometimes a Wappingers Group. Their many bands included the Manahattin ("Hilly Island" in the Munsee language), the Rechgawank ("Sandy Place," possibly related to the Haverstraw), the Tenkenas ("Wild Land"), the Rechewanis ("Sandy Place"), the Conykeekst ("Little Narrow Tract"), the Muscoota ("Place of Rushes"), the Ranachqua ("End Place"), the Sachwranung, the Quinnahung ("Long High Place"), the Schorankin, the Keskeskick ("Short Sharp Sedge Grass" or "Where The Grass Rustles"), the Shorakapkok ("Good Sitting Down Place By the Water"), the Paparinemin, the Kentipath, and the Acqueegecom ("Steep High Bank"). Some of these may be place-names only. Munsee oral tradition strongly indicates Munsee occupation of Manhattan and possibly the Bronx, perhaps in addition to these sub-tribes.

I have recently learned of the following Munsee subtribes, but do not have complete information yet. They are (from http://www.dickshovel.com): Cashiehtunk, Lackawaxen (2), Marechkawieck (same as Gawanus, mentioned elsewhere), Meochkonck, Mengakonia, Mohickon, Outauninkin, Pakadasank, Papagonk, Peckwes, Shepinakonck, Waywayanda, (of southern Orange County, NY) Wildwyck (Kingston, probably same as Warranawongkongs) and Wysox.

Unami (Turtle totem. Literally, "The People Down River"). TheUnami bands include the Hackensack, Mosilian (or Mosinan) the Raritan (some say these are the same as Sanhikan), the Navasink, the Axion (or Atsayonck, or Atsayogky), the Remkokes, (aka Ramcock, Ancocus, Rancocas, Rankoke, Rarncock, or Remahenonc) the Momakarongh, and the Assomoches.

The seven Hackinsack bands included the Hackinsack ("Hook-like Mouth of the River Land" or "Place of Sharp Ground"), the Ackkinkash, the Weehawken, the Hobokan ("Tobacco Pipe"), the Aressick, the Passaic ("Valley"), and the Watchogue ("Hilly Land"). There may have been a Harsimus band of Lenape in this area.
Seven major bands of the Western Unami include the Wyoming,("Where the Water Crosses the Plains," the Tulpehochen ("Turtle Land"), the Shackamaxon, ("Place of the Bear") the Nittabakonck, the Playwicky, the Passayunk ("In The Valley"), and the Okehocking.

I have recently learned of the following Unami-speaking subtribes, but do not have complete information yet. They are (from the same Dick Shovel website): Ahaimus, Aquackanonk, Armeomeck, Assunpink, Brotherton, Calcefar, Coacquannok, Coaxen, Communipaw (Gamaoenapa), Cranbury, Crosswick (Crossweeksung), Edgepilock (Indian Mills), Eriwonec (Armewamese, Armewamex, Erinoneck, Ermamex), Gweghkongh, Haverstraw (or Haverstroo; but they are well within Munsee territory) Hespatingh, Keskaechquerem (a band of the Canarsie region), Konekotay, Lehigh (Gachwehnagechga), Hockanetcunk, Macock, Matanakon (Matikonghy), Matovancon, Mechgachkamic, Meggeckessou, Meletecunk (Metacunk), Momakarongk, Mooharmowikarun, Mookwungwahoki, Muhhowekaken, Muhkarmhukse, Muhkrentharne, Nittabonck (Nittabokonck), Neshamini, Meshannock, Paatquacktung, Pavonia, Pemickpacka, Pocopson (Poaetquissingh, Pocaupsing), Sawkin, Schuykill (near Philadelphia), Soupnapka, Tappan, Waoranec, Weepink, Welagamika, Wickquakonik (Wicoa), Wichquaquenscke, and Yacomanshaghking.

Their neighbors were the Unalimi, "The People Up River," a less historically significant Lenape band, with few if any subtribes.

Unalatchtgo (Turkey "totem clan." Literally, "People Near the Ocean"). Seven principle nations are the Armewamex, the Mantaes, the Naraticonck, the Little Siconese/Big Siconese (Chiconesseck), the Sewapois, the Wicomiss, and the Kechemeches.
The Dickshovel website list includes the following sub-tribes of the Unalatchtgo, (or "Unalactigo" nation of southern New Jersey, northern Delaware and southeastern PA (until 1682) Amimenipaty, Assomoche, Atayoneck, Chikohoki (Chihohock, Chilohoki), Cranbury, Hickory, Hopokohacking, Kahansu, Manta (Mantes), Memankitonna, Minguannan (Minguahanan, Minguarinari), Nantuxet, Naraticon (Maraticonck, Narraticong), Quenomysing (Quineomessingque), Roymount, Tirans, and Watcessit.

Nanticoke ("Tidewater"). A mixed group, closely related to Lenapes. Some joined the Iroquois Confederacy later on. There is a connection with the "Brandywine" Lenape of southern Pennsylvania, though separated by Cedar Creek swamp, which cuts across the DelMarVa panhandle.Their seven bands included the Annemessex, the Assateagues, the Chicacones, the Choptanks, the Nanticokes, the Wicomicoes and possibly the Pocomoke ("Dark Water").

Piscataway ("High Passable Bank Around A Bend in the River").
Their many bands included the Anacostians, Chopticans, Kittamaqundis, Mattawomacs, Nanjemoys, Patuxents, Piscataways, Potomacs ("Where Tribute Is Brought"), Potopacs, and Taocomcoes, among others. There is dispute as to their relationship to the Conoy.

aka Paumenoc, or Montaukett Confederacy aka Wyandanch Confederacy

Montauk (or Montaukett) ("A Fortified Place on High Land" or possibly "In the Island Country") spoke the "N" dialect, then moved toward the "Y" dialect in the late 1600s.
Shinnecock ("At the Level Land") similar to Abenaki (Eastern and Western), an L dialect.
Unquachaug ("Land Beyond the Hill") R and Y dialect, probably from Connecticut.
Secatogue (Patchogues are a sub-tribe) ("Black or Colored Land") Their language was originally the old "N" type, but gradually adopted the Renneiu.
Massapequa ("Large Shallow Pond") R dialect.
Merrick ("Plains Country" also "Shoreside People") R dialect.
Rockaway (R dialect; "Sandy Land") Subtribes included the Rechquaakee, ("Sandy Land"), the Wandowenock ("They Dig Pits"), the Mespaeches, the Yameco ("Place of the Beaver"), and the Equendito ("Cleared of Trees"). Little is known about these groups and their names may be mistranslated. When they left their area, some joined the Unami to the west, others joined the R dialect nations of the Matouac (Long Island) Confederacy to the east.
Canarsie (See following section)
Matinecock (R dialect, "Good Place to Hunt" or "Broken Up Ground/Place of Rough Ground") Renneiu type language. Part of the Western Matouac (Renneiu Speakers) including the Massapequa ("Water from Here to There"), Seawanhakee ("At the Salty Place" or "Wampum Land"), and the Madnack, all of Queens and adjoining Long Island of the Matouac Confederacy,and there is reason to believe they were rivals of the Munsee. Matinecock may be a Delaware word.
Nissequogue ("Clay Country") Was N dialect language, gradually converted to R dialect.
Setauket (aka Seatalcats, "Land at the Mouth of the River") Presumably Renneiu.
Corchaug ("Principal Place" or "Ancient Ones") Old original N language, gradually converted to the Renneiu (R dialect) in the late 1600s.
Manhasset ("Island Sheltered by Other Islands") Presumably old N language, gradually replaced by Renneiu.

The Eastern Canarsie (R dialect) some say may be related to Wappingers include the Makeop ("Open Field"), the Mocung ("Black Muddy Place"), the Narrioch ("Point of Land"), the Mannahaning ("Hilly Island"), the Shanscomacocke ("By the Ocean, Wholly Enclosed"), the Hoopaninak ("Enclosed Island"), and the Winippague. The Massabarkem ("Land By the Great Water") may have originally come from another area, but borrowed land from the Canarsie. It should be noted that the term "Canarsie" in Dutch records refers to those near the King's Highway/Flatbush crossroads only, and not the others. However, convention has it that all of these peoples were linked together under the influence of the Canarsie.

The Western Canarsie (R dialect) include the Canarsie, the Nyack ("Land at the Point", two settlements), the Gowanus ("Young Pine," from a Chief's name aka Marechkawieck), which may be a sub-tribe of the Nyack), the Pagganck ("Place for Walnuts") /Kapsee ("Sharp Rocks In The Water"), the Rechtank/ Shepmoes, the Werpoes ("In the Thicket"), the Achwowongen ("Steep High Bank"), and the Rinneganconc ("Pleasant Land"). It has been suggested by Dr. Blaire Rudes and others that the Canarsie spoke the Wappingers type of R dialect, known as Taconic dialect, and may have been the originators of it. All Canarsie were part of the Matouac League, but not formally part of the Montaukett Confederacy, which included the rest of Long Island.

Wappingers (from Muwapinkus or Possum Clan, derived from Wappings, "Men of the East"). Some say were nine tribes in the Wappinger Confederacy, some say twelve, others, twenty. They may have been related to the Mohican and Munsee by blood, entering their territory from the south some time after 1300. Muwapinkus literally means "He has no fur on his tail" in Munsee, but has also been translated "little white face." They occupied parts of Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester, Bronx, New York, and possibly Richmond counties,

From the north, the major groups are:

Wappingers (Rhinebeck to Spackenkill, including Sepasco), Mattawan ("Trout Stream," Beacon-Fishkill),Nochpeem (Fahnstock area, Putnam Co.), Kitchewan (now Croton, Wapp. R), Meahagh (now Cortlandt), Alipconck (now So. Tarrytown, Weck), Katonah (after Wapp. Chief), Oscawana (near Cortlandt), Sintsink(Ossining, Spoke Wapp.R), Senasqua (Now Tellers Point, Kitchewan R), Sachoes (now Peekskill, Wapp.), Nochpeem (Fahnstauk area, R speakers), Quarropus (now White Plains, Siwanoy), Muskatow Pequenahunc (now No. Salem), Toquam (Pound Ridge, Kitchewan R), Tuckahoe, ("Jack-in-the-Pulpit" ie "A root that's good to eat"), Putitucus ("Little Putatuck"), Pokerhoe (No. Tarrytown, Sintsink R), Succabonk, (?) Shonanocke (Rye, R speakers), Ammawalk Nanichkestawak (Somers), Armonk(from Warramaug), Petuquepaen (now Somers), aka Cantitoe (now Bedford), Nanichkestawac (?), Mamaroneck, ("Stripes on His Arms" Mamaroneck), Hoseco (Port Chester), Kisco (now New Castle) Kestabuic (Coton) Poningoe, (Rye, on Manursing Is.), Shonanocke. Sinsinks ("A Stony Place"--Westchester), Weckqueesgeeks ("People of the Birchbark"), the Rockaways ("Sandy Place"), although again these were probably Wappingers speakers. Grumet also includes the Sanhikans ("Firemaking Place" or "Fire Drill"), Hokohongus (R Sintsink, Weckweesgeek speakers) Napekemak (Now Yonkers, the word Yonkers derived from Jangers, a Dutch translation of Matouac, "The Young Men.")

In Connecticut, the Tankatakes or Tentakis, (pronounced Ten-dah-kis) Roatan, and possibly others are Wappingers.

Rechgawank: Also known as the "Manhattan" Indians, they are sometimes considered a Munsee sub-group, sometimes a Wappingers Group. Their many bands included the Manahattin ("Hilly Island"), the Rechgawank ("Sandy Place," possibly related to the Haverstraw), the Tenkenas ("Wild Land"), the Rechewanis ("Sandy Place"), the Conykeekst ("Little Narrow Tract"), the Muscoota ("Place of Rushes"), the Ranachqua ("End Place"), the Sachwranung, the Quinnahung ("Long High Place"), the Schorankin, the Keskeskick ("Short Sharp Sedge Grass" or "Where The Grass Rustles"), the Shorakapkok ("Good Sitting Down Place by the Water,"), the Paparinemin, the Kentipath, and the Acqueegecom ("Steep High Bank"). Some of these may be place-names only. Munsee oral tradition strongly indicates Munsee occupation of Manhattan and possibly the Bronx, perhaps in addition to these sub-tribes.
Siwanoy: The Siwanoy were "R dialect" or Renneiu- speaking people of the East Bronx, closely associated with the Matouac (Long Island) Confederacy. Their bands included the Conangungh, the Shippa (now New Rochelle) the Wanaqua, ("Sassafras") the Siwanoy, Siwanoy ("Wampum" Harrison, beneath Rye Lake) the Snakapins ("Between River and Water" Throgs Neck, Bronx), the Mishow, Chappaqua ("A Separate Place" ) and the Asumsowis.

Separate from, but closely related to the Lenni-Lenape and Long Island Confederacy Peoples are the N speaking Mohican.
Mohican (or Mahican) (People of the Water that Flows Both Ways/Waters that Ebb and Flow) (Wolf "totem") (N type language). According to folk wisdom, there were nine tribes in the Mohican Confederacy. The Mahican lived along the Hudson River (or Mahicanituk) from Poughkeepsie northward on the eastern shore. Their relatives, the Wappingers, lived south of them along the eastern bank of the river from Poughkeepsie to Manhattan. On the western bank, the Mohican territory started at Sawyer's Creek in Saugerties and extended north to Lake Champlain, and as far west as the crest of the Catskill Mountains. Those east of what is now New York State, I will refer to as Eastern Mahican.

Eastern Mohican: The Mahican "N" dialect expanded quite a ways into New England during the early colonial period. Mahican, Schodac, Stockbridge, Scatacooks, Housetonics ("Over The Mountain"), and Wepawaugs, are all N dialect Mahicans.
The Pequamocks, Potatucks, Cupheags, Quinnipiacs, ("Where we change our route") Paugusset ("Where The River Widens"), Pequannocks ("Battlefield" or "Slaughter-place"), Wangunks, Tunxis, and the Podunks, are mentioned under the heading of New England peoples, and were Renneiu speakers, (R dialect) however, they have strong Mohican cultural roots.

SOUTHEASTERN (Relatives of the Lenni Lenape)
Powhatan Alliance (after Chief Powhatan, "Falls of the River People"). Thirty-one small tribal groups during the time of Pocahontas, two hundred villages. The principle seven included:
Roanoke ("Northern People")
Chickahomini ("Pounded Corn People", aka "People of the Clearing") Pocahontas and her famous father were of the Chickahomini nation.
Chesapeake ("Large Waters with Large Clams and Oysters"). Some were of the Hatteras-Powhatan group.
Pamlico (some believe Lumbees are descendants of Pamlicos), of the Hatteras-Powhatan group.
Smaller bands aligned with the Powhatan were the Cuttatawoman, the Taughanono, the Onawmaniet, the Sekakawon, the Wiccocomito, the Piankatank, the Chiskiac, the Kecoughtan, the Quiyoughcohannock, the Appamattuck, the Arrohateck, the Paspahegh, the Accomac, the Kisiack, the Occohannock, and the Opiscopank.
The Hatteras Algonquins of North Carolina were not aligned with the Powhatan Confederacy at contact, but did speak a Lenni-Lenape type of language.
Their bands included the Warrashoyack, the Nansemon, the Weapemeoc, the Moratok, the Secotan, the Aquaseogoc, the Comokee, the Hatteras, the Ocracoke, the Pamlico, The Machapunga, The Pomeiok, and the "Noose" or Noosiak also known as the Coharie. The Coharie were finally recognized by the state of North Carolina in 1971, and currently have four settlements in Sampson County. The Coree and the Croatan of the area may have been Algonquin as well. . The Chawanoac also joined the Hatteras-Powhatan Confederacy at one time. The word Chawanoac resembles the Cherokee word for "salty" and as the Nottaway and Meherrin, both Cherokee/ Iroquoian-speaking people live nearby, there is some speculation on the origins of the Chawanoac. Dark Rain Thom indicates these were Shawnee.

Cree (from Kirishtinoo). The meaning is uncertain, perhaps relating to those who were converted to Christianity. Although highly migratory, certain groupings can be made.

East Main Cree, the largest group, had seven subtribes located at:
Waswanipi, Lake St. John, Chicoutimi, Tadoufsac, Escoumains, Oumamiouek, and Godoubt. The traditional band names include the Nisibourounik, the Pitchibourounik, the Gesseiriniouetch, the Opinagauiriniouetch, the Grand Mistassirini, and Le Petit Mistassirini. (The Bersimis, Papinachois, and Mistassini settlements in the region are affiliated with the Montagnais.)

West Main Cree, seven subtribes located at:
Moosefactory, Moosonee, Fort Albany, Attawapiskat, Weenusk, Severn Band, and Fort York. Traditional band names include the Alimibegouek, the Monsoni, the Attawapiskat, Washahoe (aka New Severn Indians), the Weenusk, the Penneswagewan, and Wappus ("Rabbit" Cree).

The other five nations of the Cree hoop might include the
Tete-de-Boule Cree, Abitibi, Timiscimi, Outoulibi, Piscoutagami, Outchichagamiouetch, and Gens des Terres general, plus Attikamek ("White Fish" or "Trout" Band)
Woods Cree include La Barriere, Paun, Bois Fort, Prairies, L'eau Trouble, Cree de Lacs, Brochet, and Michinipicpoet Cree.

Also, the three Blackfoot nations:
Blackfoot (from Siksika, or "Black Moccasins")
Blood (Cree of the Northern Plains. They call themselves Kainah or "Many Chiefs").
Piegan (perhaps from pis'kun, a corral at the foot of a cliff over which buffalo were driven. Other sources say this means "Small Robes.")

Ojibwa Confederacy-Anishinabe
The nations of the Ojibway hoop call themselves Abishinabe people. At one time a formal confederacy was created with the Ojibway, Ottawa and Potawatomi, who were once one nation. The seven fire prophecies record their migration from the East back to the lands of their ancestors, about 1400 AD.

Ottawa (Odawa or "Trading People"). The Ottawa River was the main trade route for thousands of years, hence the confusion of names.

Ojibwa/Chippewa ("People Who Draw on Birchbark") The prophecies and visions of the elders were written on birchbark scrolls and on sand and rock as well.
Subgroups include the Outchiou (Ojibway) Marameg, Noquet, and the Salteaux (northwestern band) (pronounced "So-to"). The term Bungi refers to the Plains Ojibway, the Mississauga Ojibway-speaking people between Georigan Bay and Lake Ontario after the Huron Wars. They ceded much valuable land to the English in the middle to late 1700s. The Amikwa (Nez Pierce). Lesser known groups include Ouasouarini, Graisse Ours (aka Makoua), and Nameouilini.

Menominee ("Wild Rice People"). The word relates to the prophecy mentioned above.
They were told to go west to the land where the food grows on the water - wild rice.

Algonquin or Algonkin ("Allies"). They call themselves Mamawinini ("Nomadic People") or Anishnabek ("True Men" or "Real Men").
Their seven main bands are: the Kitchesipirini (Allumette/Morrison Islands, "People of the Great River"), the Weskarini (Petite Nation area), the Kinounchepirini (the Ottawa River area below Allumette Island), the Matouweskarini (Madawaski River area), the Ottagoutowuemin (Ottawa River above Allumette), the Nipissing ("People of the Small Lake" north and south of the lake), and Nippean ("Where We Slept"). By 1785, these had become fourteen bands, the Barriere, the Baskatong, the Gatineau/Lievre River, the Mississipi/Chats River, the Madawaska/ Bonnechere, the Mattawa, and the Nipissing. Also, the Temagami, the Saugeen, the Temiscamingue, the Long Point, the Wolf Lake/DuMoine, the Grand Lak, and the Ottawa River/Coulonge bands. The Algonkins of the eastern sector from Ottawa city to Oka had become Mission Christians by this time.

Potawatomi ("People of the Place of Fire" aka "The Fire Nation"). This may be a clue that they are linked directly to the central fire of the Creation story, which was moved from the Montreal area to the Detroit/Brownstown area, part of their ancestral land. They call themselves Neshnabek, "the People."
The Mississauga are often considered separate from the Ojibway. The Nipissing are often considered separately from the Algonkin.

PRAIRIE ALGONQUINS Ohio Valley Confederacy
Shawnee ("People of the South"). A large influential group made up of many "septs." These "septs" are the Makujay, the Piqua, and the Kispoko/Kispotaka of the Lenni-Lenape root. The Chalgotha/Chillicothe of the Siberian root and the Telegwa/Ft. Ancient of the Mound builder root. The Shawnee always speak of them as five septs, however, two are split, leaving seven groups. The Prairie Confederacy under Tecumseh was called "The Seven Nations" by 1794, but the Shawnee did not play the dominant role.

Miami (Ohio area, related to Illinois, from Oumamik, "People of the Peninsula").

Piankashaw (related to Miami)

Wea, closely associated with the Piankashaw

The Sac Tribes

Sauk (from Osakiwug, "People of the Yellow Clay"), now in Iowa and Oklahoma.
Fox/Mesquaki ("People of the Red Clay"), now in Iowa and Oklahoma.
Kickapoo ("He Moves About, Standing Here and There"), now in Oklahoma, Kansas New Mexico, and, recently, Mexico. The Mascouten were also part of the Sac tribes.

Illinois Confederacy (Illinewek). Related to the Prairie Algonquins.
Illinois ("Ordinary Speakers"). From ileniwe, probably a mix of the French "il" + the Algonquin "lenni" + the Algonquin "weh" or "they" or the French ending ois, as in "Quebecois."
Peoria ("He Carries a Pack")
Moingwena ("Bear Lake People")
Michigamea ("People of the Great Waters")
Kaskaskian ("Ten of Them"?)
Cahokia ("People Who Live Near the Cahokia Mounds:" Cahokia means "Place of Wild Geese.")
Tamaroa ("People Who Live Near the Tamaroa Mounds")

Arapaho ("Wolf People"). Arapaho is a Crow word for Enemy with Many Skins. It also may be a Pawnee word for He Who Trades. They traditionally call themselves Kananavich or "Bison Path People." Originally from Minnesota, the Kananavich were the first Algonquins to move west. Now divided into northern and southern bands. Southern are called Siksika.
Gros Ventre (from French for "Big Belly People"), a western branch of the Arapaho.
There were three other Arapaho bands, the Woodlodge People, the Rock People, the South People.
Cheyenne (from a Lakota word for "they speak unintelligibly"). They call themselves Tsitsista, or "The People." Ten bands.
Sutai (closely related to Cheyenne)
Arapaho and Cheyenne are not closely related, but are the only western Algonquins today.

(* indicates acknowledged links to Algonquin languages; others in its grouping would presumably also be linked)

Plateau, Northern Interior Salish: Shuswap (aka Sexwepemx) Thompson (aka Nl'akapamux) Lillooet (aka St'at'imx)
South Interior Salish:* Coeur d'Alene*, Flathead* (aka Selish), Kalispel*, Spokan*, Colville (aka Sweelpoo), Okanagan*, Lake, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Methow, Columbia (aka Sinkiuse) Wenatchee, Chelan, Entiat.
Coast Salishan:* Northern Salishan*: Bella Coola* (aka Nuxalk),
Central Salishan: Comox*, Pentlatch, Sechelt, Squamish*, Halkomelem (including Cowichan, Musqueam, Chilliwack) Nooksack, Lushootseed (aka Puget), Twana.
Straits Salishan: Lummi, Songish (aka Lkungen), Sooke, Klallam (aka S'klallam)
Tsamosan Salish:* Quinault, Chehails*, Cowlitz*.
Southern Salish:* Tillamook*
Salishan Isolates: Haida (includes Kaigani, Masset, Skidegate)
and Tsimshian (includes Coast, Southern, Niska, and Gitksan)
Pend-d'Oreilles* (Salish?) Nisqualli* (Salish?)
Nootkan:* (includes Makah, Nitinat, Nootka* (aka Nuuchanuth))
Kwakiutlan:* Northern Kwakiutlan: Bella Bella (aka Heiltsuk), Xai Xais, Owikeno, Haisla (aka Kitimat)
Southern Kwkiutlan: Kwakiutl* (aka Kwakwaka'wakw)
Yachi, Kutenai,* Ritwan,* (includes Wiyot,* and Yurok,* and related to Yukian) Yukian includes Yuki, Coast, Huchnom, and Wappo) These 65 western bands combined with the 335 Algonquin bands brings the number of Algonquin-related peoples on this list to 400.


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