The Center for Algonquin Culture
Box 140, Salt Point NY 12578
The Major Alqonquin*
Throughout North America and What They Call Themselves
this material © 2000 Evan Pritchard
revised © 2002
The term "Algonquin" was apparently
introduced to the world by Samuel de Champlain in 1603, typically, by
mistake. He was referring to a specific group of Native Americans he
had encountered at Tadoussac, which the Malecite had told him were "Elaegomogwik,"
which means either, "These people are our allies," or "The
people on the other shore." Champlain mispronounced it "Algoumekin"
which later became Algonquin, and this is the name still used today
to refer to the nation of the (misnamed) Ottawa River. Those people
call themselves "Anishnabek," which has been translated as
"The Good Men." They also call themselves "Mamawinini,"
or nomadic people. In hindsight, it would have been better if Champlain
had called this large group of related peoples "Manitou-wisiwag,"
or "the people who follow the ways of Manitou," for this word
for Great Spirit is unique to their culture and common to all "Algonquian"
One band of "Anishinabe-Algonkians,"
the Kiche-sipi-rini" or "People of the Great River,"
were possibly the first of this ancient culture to settle down in one
place, Allumette Island. Allumette is the largest island in the Ottawa
River, the river which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec,
and there is evidence of sedentary Anishinabe-Algonkian settlements
there going back at least 6,280 years, and occupation in the area dating
back 7,000 years as it became inhabitable after the Ice Age. From this
power base in the center of the trade route, their influence and language
spread throughout North America. Hence they have been called "The
First People." Their relatives a few miles to the east who settled
at Oka may be yet more ancient, and habitation in the Micmac region
may go back 11,000 years, but all are of a common origin. Nonetheless,
Allumette Island was a turning point in the civilization.
There is little doubt that the Anishinabe-Algonkians
of Allumette are the direct descendants of the so-called "Clovis"
people, long considered the oldest group of Native Americans. Clovis
points have been found close to the borders of Quebec, in Maine, Vermont,
New York, Nova Scotia and Ontario. Clovis roots date back at least to
14,000 years ago when the glaciers forced them to make present-day New
Mexico their home. However, whether they came across the Bering Strait
20,000 years ago, or came up from South America via Mexico is now being
debated. The campsite found at Cactus Hill, Virginia, around 16,000
years old, is now thought by many to be proto-Algonquin in character.
At the time of European contact, cousins of the
Anishnabe language could be found from coast to coast and from the Arctic
Circle to the Gulf of Mexico. This large and diverse cultural and linguistic
group was termed "Algonquin" in 1891 by John Wesley Powell
and the name stuck. It is taken to mean "The First People."
According to Captain John Smith and
others, the term used by natives in the 1600s for the original root
language was "Algonkeen." (Elaegomkeen?) Algonquin is probably
a French spelling of that same word. The ending kee is a suffix in that
root language which means "place" or "land" (short
for ha-kee), though keen has no meaning in Algic tongues.
The following is an outline of those languages and dialects as they
were named and recorded by the first Europeans to write down their encounters
with native people. The groupings in sevens are the author's own, based
on oral histories and library research. The seven major hoops are Wabanaki
(or Northeastern), New England, Lenni-Lenape (including Southeastern),
Cree, Great Lakes, Prairie Nations, and Western Plains. This is an approximation,
illustrating the ancient teaching that the Anishinabe-Algonkian people
were created by seven sparks emanating from seven fires (which emanated
from the original fire as described in the Gluskap story). These seven
sparks (nations) each gave birth to other sparks (nations). There are
eighty-four major Anishinabe-Algonkian nations which have played a significant
role in history as we know it. Also listed here are some of the off-spring
hoops, or sub-nations, that are less well known. That this process still
goes on today illustrates the old saying "Creation is happening
("People of the Dawn"). A hoop of seven great nations, each
with their own sub-groups. The formal Wabanaki Confereracy of the 1800s
and did not include each of the nations.
Micmac (L dialect)
(from Meegamooatch "We Are All Related By Blood") or Mi'kmaq
("My Kinfolk) (sometimes also translated as "Allies").
The seven council districts are Gespegeoag, Sigenigeoag, Epegoitg ag
Pigtogeog, Gespogoitg (aka Souriquois), Segepenegatig, Esgigeoag, and
dialect) ("They Talk Differently") aka "Etchemin"
the people of the sandy berries.
Abenaki (L dialect)
("Dawn Land People") The Abenaki Confederacy could be said
to include seven bands: the Casco ("Muddy"), the Kennebec
(aka Canabas, "Long Water Land"), the Norridgewock ("Where
The Swift Water Descends"), the Pejepscot, the Saco ("Outflowing"),
the Wawenock, and the Sokoki. The Ammonousucs, Arosaguntacooks, Kikomkwaks,
and Nulheganocks were subtribes of the Sokoki. The Arosaguntacook or
Androscoggin ("Fish Curing Place") were subtribes of Norridgewock.
The Ossipee ("Rocky River") and the Pequaket were subtribes
of the Saco.
dialect) ("Place Where Pollock Are Plentiful"), closely related
to the Maliseet.
Penobscot (L dialect) ("Place Where The Rocks Widen" or "It
Flows On White Rocks" or "White Water on the Rocks"),
same language as "Eastern Abenaki."
(N dialect) (French for "Mountain People"). They call
Naskapi (N dialect)
"People from Where It [The Land] Disappears"). They also call
themselves Innu people. The Innu language is closer to Cree than the
other Wabanaki languages. One could say the Montagnais and Naskapi are
one nation, the Innu, but then it is equally true that the Abenaki are
made up of two nations, usually referred to as Western Abenaki and Eastern
Abenaki. Either way, there are still seven.
The Montagnais circle of nations include the Tadoussacien, the Kakouchak,
the Chekoutimien, the Nekoubaniste, the Chomonchouaniste, the Oumatachinrini
and possibly the Oupapinachiouek. The Naskapi hoop includes the Oukesestigouek,
the Oukesestigouek, the Chisedech, the Bersiamites, the Ouneskapi, the
Oumamiouek, the Outakouamiouek, the Attikiriniouetch, the Mouchaouaouastiiriniouek,
and the Outabitibec.
There were seven great confederacies in the New England area south of
the Wabanaki, which together formed one great hoop of related nations.
These confederacies often exchanged member nations, or absorbed others
as neighboring confederacies dispursed. This information has been influenced
by several sources, particularly the book Ninnuock (The People) by Steven
F. Johnson, and on Bert Salwen's dialect map, "Indians of Southern
New England and Long Island, Early Period," published in Handbook
of North American Indians, Northeast, Volume 15, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C.,1978, edited by B. G. Trigger.
Confederacy (L dialect). Their seven nations are:
The Pennacook ("At The Foot of the Hill" or "Where the
Path is Narrow"), Concord, NH area. Also called Merrimac ("Much
Food" or "Rapids"), the Agawam ("Lowland" or
"Overflowed By Water"), the Amoskeag aka Namoskeag ("Fishing
Place"), the Nashua ("Where The River Divides" or "The
Land Between"), the Souhegan (Southwest, or variation on Squawkheag:
"Watching to Spear Fish"), the Wamesit ("There Is Plenty
of Room for All"), and theWinnipesaukee (possibly "Land of
FineWater" or "Land of Good Fishing Waters").
Johnson also includes the Naumkeag, ("Eel
Place"), Agamenticus, Cocheco, Coos (Pine Trees), Naticook, Newichewannock,
Ossipee, Pawtucket, Pemigewasset, Pentucket, Pequaket, Piscataqua, Saco,
("Outlet") and Squaukheag as members of this group at some
Confederacy (N dialect). Its now-scattered nations included:
Massachusett ("Great Blue Hill"). It is said that the hill
which is southeast of Boston, got its name because of all the blueberries
that used to grow upon it. In 1650, the noble and dignified Massachusett
people were captured as slaves and sent to Jamaica, where they still
exist as a cultural/ethnic group. Also included are: Nahant, Nashoba
("Between the Rivers"), Neponset ("Early Summer"),
Norwottuck ("Far From Us"), Punkapoag ("Shallow Fresh
Water Pond"), Quabaug ("Red Fish Pond"), Saugus ("Small
Outlet"), Shawmut ("He Goes There By Water"), Wachusett
("Little Hill Place"), Wessagusset ("At the Small [Hidden?]
Salt Water Cove") and Winnisemit ("Fine Spring"). Twelve
The Agawam and Nashua tribes went from the Pennacook
to the Massachusett Confederacy during hard times for the Pennacook.
The Pocumtuck ("A Narrow Swift Current") were also part of
the Massachusett for a while. The Nonantum were an important Massachusett
nation, but are overlooked by most text books, and little is known of
Confederacy. The Wampanoag ("People of the First Light"
or "People of White Wampum"), aka Massasoit, after Chief Massasoit,
spoke an "N" dialect, still spoken by those living in exile
in the Bahamas. Also included in their numbers are the Pokanokets ("At
or Near The Cleared Lands"), Nemaskets ("Fishing Place"),
Munponsets, Pocassets ("Where the Stream Widens," similar
to Paugasset), Sakonnets ("Abode of the Black Goose"), Patuxets
(or Pawtuxets, "At the Little Falls" or "Place of the
Round-footed Ones [wolves]"). The Manamets ("A Place of Portage"),
Masnipi, Mashpee ("Great Water"), Matachees, Nobsquassets
("At The Rock Ledge Cliff"), Monomoys ("Deep Black Mire"),
Nausets ("At the Place Between"), Sokones (part of Mashpees,
could mean "Of the South"), Capawicks ("Enclosed Harbor"
or "Place of Refuge"), Shawmut and Tommokomoth could also
be included, bringing the number to eighteen.
Confederacy. The Narragansett ("On
A Small Cape"/ "At a Small Narrow Point") spoke a variation
of the N dialect. Also in the confederacy of seven were the Eastern
Niantic (Rhode Island coast and Connecticut: "Point of Land On
The Tidal Estuary" or "Tidal Land") who spoke a "Y/N"
mixed dialect, Cowweset ("At the Pine Tree Place"), Manisses,
Shawomet (possibly "Spring of Water"), Wabaquasset ("The
Place We Make Mats for House Coverings"), and the Wunashowatuckoog
("Where The River Splits"). Pawtuxets ("Small Waterfalls
at the Estuary") were affiliated with both Narragansett and Wampanoag
and spoke an N dialect.
Confederacy. The Pocumtuck probably
spoke the Nipmuk-type of the L dialect. Their allies included mostly
those from other groupings, including Agawam (from Penn.), Norwottuck
(from Mass.), Podunck (from Pequot), Squawkheag (who were also affiliated
with Penn. and Sokoki). The Tunxis and Wangunk were also with the Pequot.
The Pocumtuck tribal seat was in present-day Deerfield, Massachusetts.
Nipmuk Nations. The Nipmuk speak an L dialect. This alliance included
the Nipmuk ("People of the Freshwater Fishing Place"), Wachusett,
and Quabaugs (from Mass.), Nashuas (from Penn.), Quinebaugs (from Pequot),
Wabaquassets (from Narr.), Hassanamissits ("Sandbar"), Wunnashowatuckoogs
("Where the River Splits"), Wusquowhannanawkits ("Pidgeon
Country"), and Awashacom.
Confederacy ("The Destroyers",
however more likely from "Pequa-ta-noag" "People of the
shallow water")The "Y" dialect Pequot language group
might be considered to include the Pequots, the Mohegans ("Wolf
People"), who split off from Pequots in 1637, the Montauk (from
Narr.), the Western Niantic (from Narr.), the Wunnashowatuckoog (Narr.),
the Wusquowhannanawkit (from Nipmuk), and Unquachaug.. Of these seven
nations, only the Mohegan and Pequot were part of the confederacy. The
other five nations of the political confederacy are associated with
the R dialect of the Renneiu/Quiripi type: Quinebaug ("Long Pond"),
Quinnipiac ("Where We Change Our Route"), Tunxis ("Fast
flowing stream"), Podunk ("A Swampy Place" aka "Where
You Sink in the Mire"), and Wangunk. The Mohegan assert that the
Pequot (and therefore themselves) are descendants of the Mahicans as
well, hence the choice of tribal name. Another explanation is that Chief
Uncas, who founded the Mohegans, had several wives who were Mohican,
(N dialect) and so his offspring are Mohegans (Mohicans) whereas the
Pequot are not.
Connecticut Mohican Relations: The Pequamocks,
Potatucks, Cupheags, Quinnipiacs, ("Where we change our route")
Paugusset ("Where The River Widens"), Pequannocks ("Battlefield"
or "Slaughter-place"), Wangunks, Tunxis, and the Podunks,
were Renneiu speakers, however, they share strong Mohican cultural roots.
(L dialect; "Ordinary Speakers," or "Real People")
According to some traditions, there were twelve clans in the Lenape
nations. The three major nations of the Lenape Confederacy (aka "Delaware
Confederacy") were of these twelve, each with their own sub-tribes:
(The sub-tribes are in small type). The three lost boys of the Lenape
creation stories who were rescued by Maysingway and showed their future
home by taking one of them on a ride in the sky may have represented
these three nations. The homeland he showed them may have been Lenape-Hoking,
the middle Atlantic seaboard.
The three powerful "Grandfather" nations
were (and still are, though their peoples are now mostly intermarried),
Munsie, wolf "totem" (ptuksi, or round foot); Unami, turtle
"totem" (pakoango, or "the crawler") Unalatchtgo,
turkey "totem" (pullaeu, or "he does not chew").
It is believed that the Lenape are the descendants of some of the oldest
Some scholars, such as Herbert C. Kraft, have
stated that the association of the three grandfathers with the three
animal clans, wolf, turtle and turkey are later additions, however most
Lenape today are familiar with them, and have various ways of explaining
their meaning. Kraft also questions the existence of a formal "Unalatchtgo"
nation, but I think this is a technicality.
(Muncie or Monsey, wolf "totem." Literally, "The People
of Stony Country," as their territory starts north of the Raritan
River, above the glacial moraine)
The best known of the Munsee-speaking people are the Esopus, "Little
River"-Upper West Hudson Valley) the Minisinks ("Island Place"-Delaware
River), and possibly those of what is now northern New Jersey and Rockland
County, New York, some of whom mixed in with the Ramapough settlement.
The Esopus had five sub-tribes: Waoranecks, Warranawonkongs, Mamekotings,
Wawarsinks, and Katskills.
The "Manhattan" Indians are sometimes
considered a Munsee sub-group, sometimes a Wappingers Group. Their many
bands included the Manahattin ("Hilly Island" in the Munsee
language), the Rechgawank ("Sandy Place," possibly related
to the Haverstraw), the Tenkenas ("Wild Land"), the Rechewanis
("Sandy Place"), the Conykeekst ("Little Narrow Tract"),
the Muscoota ("Place of Rushes"), the Ranachqua ("End
Place"), the Sachwranung, the Quinnahung ("Long High Place"),
the Schorankin, the Keskeskick ("Short Sharp Sedge Grass"
or "Where The Grass Rustles"), the Shorakapkok ("Good
Sitting Down Place By the Water"), the Paparinemin, the Kentipath,
and the Acqueegecom ("Steep High Bank"). Some of these may
be place-names only. Munsee oral tradition strongly indicates Munsee
occupation of Manhattan and possibly the Bronx, perhaps in addition
to these sub-tribes.
I have recently learned of the following Munsee
subtribes, but do not have complete information yet. They are (from
http://www.dickshovel.com): Cashiehtunk, Lackawaxen (2), Marechkawieck
(same as Gawanus, mentioned elsewhere), Meochkonck, Mengakonia, Mohickon,
Outauninkin, Pakadasank, Papagonk, Peckwes, Shepinakonck, Waywayanda,
(of southern Orange County, NY) Wildwyck (Kingston, probably same as
Warranawongkongs) and Wysox.
(Turtle totem. Literally, "The People Down River"). TheUnami
bands include the Hackensack, Mosilian (or Mosinan) the Raritan (some
say these are the same as Sanhikan), the Navasink, the Axion (or Atsayonck,
or Atsayogky), the Remkokes, (aka Ramcock, Ancocus, Rancocas, Rankoke,
Rarncock, or Remahenonc) the Momakarongh, and the Assomoches.
The seven Hackinsack bands included the Hackinsack
("Hook-like Mouth of the River Land" or "Place of Sharp
Ground"), the Ackkinkash, the Weehawken, the Hobokan ("Tobacco
Pipe"), the Aressick, the Passaic ("Valley"), and the
Watchogue ("Hilly Land"). There may have been a Harsimus band
of Lenape in this area.
Seven major bands of the Western Unami include the Wyoming,("Where
the Water Crosses the Plains," the Tulpehochen ("Turtle Land"),
the Shackamaxon, ("Place of the Bear") the Nittabakonck, the
Playwicky, the Passayunk ("In The Valley"), and the Okehocking.
I have recently learned of the following Unami-speaking
subtribes, but do not have complete information yet. They are (from
the same Dick Shovel website): Ahaimus, Aquackanonk, Armeomeck, Assunpink,
Brotherton, Calcefar, Coacquannok, Coaxen, Communipaw (Gamaoenapa),
Cranbury, Crosswick (Crossweeksung), Edgepilock (Indian Mills), Eriwonec
(Armewamese, Armewamex, Erinoneck, Ermamex), Gweghkongh, Haverstraw
(or Haverstroo; but they are well within Munsee territory) Hespatingh,
Keskaechquerem (a band of the Canarsie region), Konekotay, Lehigh (Gachwehnagechga),
Hockanetcunk, Macock, Matanakon (Matikonghy), Matovancon, Mechgachkamic,
Meggeckessou, Meletecunk (Metacunk), Momakarongk, Mooharmowikarun, Mookwungwahoki,
Muhhowekaken, Muhkarmhukse, Muhkrentharne, Nittabonck (Nittabokonck),
Neshamini, Meshannock, Paatquacktung, Pavonia, Pemickpacka, Pocopson
(Poaetquissingh, Pocaupsing), Sawkin, Schuykill (near Philadelphia),
Soupnapka, Tappan, Waoranec, Weepink, Welagamika, Wickquakonik (Wicoa),
Wichquaquenscke, and Yacomanshaghking.
Their neighbors were the Unalimi,
"The People Up River," a less historically significant Lenape
band, with few if any subtribes.
(Turkey "totem clan." Literally, "People Near the Ocean").
Seven principle nations are the Armewamex, the Mantaes, the Naraticonck,
the Little Siconese/Big Siconese (Chiconesseck), the Sewapois, the Wicomiss,
and the Kechemeches.
The Dickshovel website list includes the following sub-tribes of the
Unalatchtgo, (or "Unalactigo" nation of southern New Jersey,
northern Delaware and southeastern PA (until 1682) Amimenipaty, Assomoche,
Atayoneck, Chikohoki (Chihohock, Chilohoki), Cranbury, Hickory, Hopokohacking,
Kahansu, Manta (Mantes), Memankitonna, Minguannan (Minguahanan, Minguarinari),
Nantuxet, Naraticon (Maraticonck, Narraticong), Quenomysing (Quineomessingque),
Roymount, Tirans, and Watcessit.
("Tidewater"). A mixed group, closely related to Lenapes.
Some joined the Iroquois Confederacy later on. There is a connection
with the "Brandywine" Lenape of southern Pennsylvania, though
separated by Cedar Creek swamp, which cuts across the DelMarVa panhandle.Their
seven bands included the Annemessex, the Assateagues, the Chicacones,
the Choptanks, the Nanticokes, the Wicomicoes and possibly the Pocomoke
("High Passable Bank Around A Bend in the River").
Their many bands included the Anacostians, Chopticans, Kittamaqundis,
Mattawomacs, Nanjemoys, Patuxents, Piscataways, Potomacs ("Where
Tribute Is Brought"), Potopacs, and Taocomcoes, among others. There
is dispute as to their relationship to the Conoy.
LONG ISLAND/MATOUAC LEAGUE
aka Paumenoc, or Montaukett Confederacy aka Wyandanch Confederacy
(or Montaukett) ("A Fortified Place on High Land" or possibly
"In the Island Country") spoke the "N" dialect,
then moved toward the "Y" dialect in the late 1600s.
Shinnecock ("At the Level Land") similar to Abenaki (Eastern
and Western), an L dialect.
Unquachaug ("Land Beyond the Hill") R and Y dialect, probably
Secatogue (Patchogues are a sub-tribe) ("Black or Colored Land")
Their language was originally the old "N" type, but gradually
adopted the Renneiu.
Massapequa ("Large Shallow Pond") R dialect.
Merrick ("Plains Country" also "Shoreside People")
Rockaway (R dialect; "Sandy Land") Subtribes included the
Rechquaakee, ("Sandy Land"), the Wandowenock ("They Dig
Pits"), the Mespaeches, the Yameco ("Place of the Beaver"),
and the Equendito ("Cleared of Trees"). Little is known about
these groups and their names may be mistranslated. When they left their
area, some joined the Unami to the west, others joined the R dialect
nations of the Matouac (Long Island) Confederacy to the east.
Canarsie (See following section)
Matinecock (R dialect, "Good Place to Hunt" or "Broken
Up Ground/Place of Rough Ground") Renneiu type language. Part of
the Western Matouac (Renneiu Speakers) including the Massapequa ("Water
from Here to There"), Seawanhakee ("At the Salty Place"
or "Wampum Land"), and the Madnack, all of Queens and adjoining
Long Island of the Matouac Confederacy,and there is reason to believe
they were rivals of the Munsee. Matinecock may be a Delaware word.
Nissequogue ("Clay Country") Was N dialect language, gradually
converted to R dialect.
Setauket (aka Seatalcats, "Land at the Mouth of the River")
Corchaug ("Principal Place" or "Ancient Ones") Old
original N language, gradually converted to the Renneiu (R dialect)
in the late 1600s.
Manhasset ("Island Sheltered by Other Islands") Presumably
old N language, gradually replaced by Renneiu.
The Eastern Canarsie (R dialect) some say may
be related to Wappingers include the Makeop ("Open Field"),
the Mocung ("Black Muddy Place"), the Narrioch ("Point
of Land"), the Mannahaning ("Hilly Island"), the Shanscomacocke
("By the Ocean, Wholly Enclosed"), the Hoopaninak ("Enclosed
Island"), and the Winippague. The Massabarkem ("Land By the
Great Water") may have originally come from another area, but borrowed
land from the Canarsie. It should be noted that the term "Canarsie"
in Dutch records refers to those near the King's Highway/Flatbush crossroads
only, and not the others. However, convention has it that all of these
peoples were linked together under the influence of the Canarsie.
The Western Canarsie (R dialect) include the
Canarsie, the Nyack ("Land at the Point", two settlements),
the Gowanus ("Young Pine," from a Chief's name aka Marechkawieck),
which may be a sub-tribe of the Nyack), the Pagganck ("Place for
Walnuts") /Kapsee ("Sharp Rocks In The Water"), the Rechtank/
Shepmoes, the Werpoes ("In the Thicket"), the Achwowongen
("Steep High Bank"), and the Rinneganconc ("Pleasant
Land"). It has been suggested by Dr. Blaire Rudes and others that
the Canarsie spoke the Wappingers type of R dialect, known as Taconic
dialect, and may have been the originators of it. All Canarsie were
part of the Matouac League, but not formally part of the Montaukett
Confederacy, which included the rest of Long Island.
From the north, the major groups are:
Wappingers (from Muwapinkus or Possum Clan, derived from Wappings, "Men
of the East"). Some say were nine tribes in the Wappinger Confederacy,
some say twelve, others, twenty. They may have been related to the Mohican
and Munsee by blood, entering their territory from the south some time
after 1300. Muwapinkus literally means "He has no fur on his tail"
in Munsee, but has also been translated "little white face."
They occupied parts of Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester, Bronx, New York,
and possibly Richmond counties,
Wappingers (Rhinebeck to Spackenkill, including
Sepasco), Mattawan ("Trout Stream," Beacon-Fishkill),Nochpeem
(Fahnstock area, Putnam Co.), Kitchewan (now Croton, Wapp. R), Meahagh
(now Cortlandt), Alipconck (now So. Tarrytown, Weck), Katonah (after
Wapp. Chief), Oscawana (near Cortlandt), Sintsink(Ossining, Spoke Wapp.R),
Senasqua (Now Tellers Point, Kitchewan R), Sachoes (now Peekskill, Wapp.),
Nochpeem (Fahnstauk area, R speakers), Quarropus (now White Plains,
Siwanoy), Muskatow Pequenahunc (now No. Salem), Toquam (Pound Ridge,
Kitchewan R), Tuckahoe, ("Jack-in-the-Pulpit" ie "A root
that's good to eat"), Putitucus ("Little Putatuck"),
Pokerhoe (No. Tarrytown, Sintsink R), Succabonk, (?) Shonanocke (Rye,
R speakers), Ammawalk Nanichkestawak (Somers), Armonk(from Warramaug),
Petuquepaen (now Somers), aka Cantitoe (now Bedford), Nanichkestawac
(?), Mamaroneck, ("Stripes on His Arms" Mamaroneck), Hoseco
(Port Chester), Kisco (now New Castle) Kestabuic (Coton) Poningoe, (Rye,
on Manursing Is.), Shonanocke. Sinsinks ("A Stony Place"--Westchester),
Weckqueesgeeks ("People of the Birchbark"),
the Rockaways ("Sandy Place"),
although again these were probably Wappingers speakers. Grumet also
includes the Sanhikans ("Firemaking Place" or "Fire Drill"),
Hokohongus (R Sintsink, Weckweesgeek speakers) Napekemak (Now Yonkers,
the word Yonkers derived from Jangers, a Dutch translation of Matouac,
"The Young Men.")
In Connecticut, the Tankatakes or Tentakis, (pronounced Ten-dah-kis)
Roatan, and possibly others are Wappingers.
Rechgawank: Also known as the "Manhattan" Indians, they are
sometimes considered a Munsee sub-group, sometimes a Wappingers Group.
Their many bands included the Manahattin ("Hilly Island"),
the Rechgawank ("Sandy Place," possibly related to the Haverstraw),
the Tenkenas ("Wild Land"), the Rechewanis ("Sandy Place"),
the Conykeekst ("Little Narrow Tract"), the Muscoota ("Place
of Rushes"), the Ranachqua ("End Place"), the Sachwranung,
the Quinnahung ("Long High Place"), the Schorankin, the Keskeskick
("Short Sharp Sedge Grass" or "Where The Grass Rustles"),
the Shorakapkok ("Good Sitting Down Place by the Water,"),
the Paparinemin, the Kentipath, and the Acqueegecom ("Steep High
Bank"). Some of these may be place-names only. Munsee oral tradition
strongly indicates Munsee occupation of Manhattan and possibly the Bronx,
perhaps in addition to these sub-tribes.
Siwanoy: The Siwanoy were "R dialect" or Renneiu- speaking
people of the East Bronx, closely associated with the Matouac (Long
Island) Confederacy. Their bands included the Conangungh, the Shippa
(now New Rochelle) the Wanaqua, ("Sassafras") the Siwanoy,
Siwanoy ("Wampum" Harrison, beneath Rye Lake) the Snakapins
("Between River and Water" Throgs Neck, Bronx), the Mishow,
Chappaqua ("A Separate Place" ) and the Asumsowis.
Separate from, but closely related to the Lenni-Lenape and Long Island
Confederacy Peoples are the N speaking Mohican.
Mohican (or Mahican) (People of the Water that Flows Both Ways/Waters
that Ebb and Flow) (Wolf "totem") (N type language). According
to folk wisdom, there were nine tribes in the Mohican Confederacy. The
Mahican lived along the Hudson River (or Mahicanituk) from Poughkeepsie
northward on the eastern shore. Their relatives, the Wappingers, lived
south of them along the eastern bank of the river from Poughkeepsie
to Manhattan. On the western bank, the Mohican territory started at
Sawyer's Creek in Saugerties and extended north to Lake Champlain, and
as far west as the crest of the Catskill Mountains. Those east of what
is now New York State, I will refer to as Eastern Mahican.
Eastern Mohican: The Mahican "N" dialect
expanded quite a ways into New England during the early colonial period.
Mahican, Schodac, Stockbridge, Scatacooks, Housetonics ("Over The
Mountain"), and Wepawaugs, are all N dialect Mahicans.
The Pequamocks, Potatucks, Cupheags, Quinnipiacs, ("Where we change
our route") Paugusset ("Where The River Widens"), Pequannocks
("Battlefield" or "Slaughter-place"), Wangunks,
Tunxis, and the Podunks, are mentioned under the heading of New England
peoples, and were Renneiu speakers, (R dialect) however, they have strong
Mohican cultural roots.
(Relatives of the Lenni Lenape)
Powhatan Alliance (after Chief Powhatan, "Falls of the River People").
Thirty-one small tribal groups during the time of Pocahontas, two hundred
villages. The principle seven included:
Roanoke ("Northern People")
Chickahomini ("Pounded Corn People", aka "People of the
Clearing") Pocahontas and her famous father were of the Chickahomini
Chesapeake ("Large Waters with Large Clams and Oysters").
Some were of the Hatteras-Powhatan group.
Pamlico (some believe Lumbees are descendants of Pamlicos), of the Hatteras-Powhatan
Smaller bands aligned with the Powhatan were the Cuttatawoman, the Taughanono,
the Onawmaniet, the Sekakawon, the Wiccocomito, the Piankatank, the
Chiskiac, the Kecoughtan, the Quiyoughcohannock, the Appamattuck, the
Arrohateck, the Paspahegh, the Accomac, the Kisiack, the Occohannock,
and the Opiscopank.
The Hatteras Algonquins of North Carolina were also aligned with the
Powhatans, and the Hatteras language was also Lenni-Lenape in character.
Their bands included the Warrashoyack, the Nansemon, the Weapemeoc,
the Moratok, the Secotan, the Aquaseogoc, the Comokee, the Hatteras,
the Ocracoke, the Pamlico, The Machapunga, The Pomeiok, and the "Noose"
or Noosiak also known as the Coharie. The Coharie were finally recognized
by the state of North Carolina in 1971, and currently have four settlements
in Sampson County. The Coree and the Croatan of the area may have been
Algonquin as well. . The Chawanoac also joined the Hatteras-Powhatan
Confederacy at one time. The word Chawanoac resembles the Cherokee word
for "salty" and as the Nottaway and Meherrin, both Cherokee/
Iroquoian-speaking people live nearby, there is some speculation on
the origins of the Chawanoac. Dark Rain Thom indicates these were Shawnee.
Cree (from Kirishtinoo). The meaning is uncertain, perhaps relating
to those who were converted to Christianity. Although highly migratory,
certain groupings can be made.
East Main Cree, the largest group, had seven subtribes located at:
Waswanipi, Lake St. John, Chicoutimi, Tadoufsac, Escoumains, Oumamiouek,
and Godoubt. The traditional band names include the Nisibourounik, the
Pitchibourounik, the Gesseiriniouetch, the Opinagauiriniouetch, the
Grand Mistassirini, and Le Petit Mistassirini. (The Bersimis, Papinachois,
and Mistassini settlements in the region are affiliated with the Montagnais.)
West Main Cree, seven subtribes located at:
Moosefactory, Moosonee, Fort Albany, Attawapiskat, Weenusk, Severn Band,
and Fort York. Traditional band names include the Alimibegouek, the
Monsoni, the Attawapiskat, Washahoe (aka New Severn Indians), the Weenusk,
the Penneswagewan, and Wappus ("Rabbit" Cree).
The other five nations of the Cree hoop might include the
Tete-de-Boule Cree, Abitibi, Timiscimi, Outoulibi, Piscoutagami, Outchichagamiouetch,
and Gens des Terres general, plus Attikamek ("White Fish"
or "Trout" Band)
Woods Cree include La Barriere, Paun, Bois Fort, Prairies, L'eau Trouble,
Cree de Lacs, Brochet, and Michinipicpoet Cree.
Also, the three Blackfoot nations:
Blackfoot (from Siksika, or "Black Moccasins")
Blood (Cree of the Northern Plains. They call themselves Kainah or "Many
Piegan (perhaps from pis'kun, a corral at the foot of a cliff over which
buffalo were driven. Other sources say this means "Small Robes.")
The nations of the Ojibway hoop call themselves Abishinabe people. At
one time a formal confederacy was created with the Ojibway, Ottawa and
Potawatomi, who were once one nation. The seven fire prophecies record
their migration from the East back to the lands of their ancestors,
about 1400 AD.
Ottawa (Odawa or "Trading People"). The Ottawa River
was the main trade route for thousands of years, hence the confusion
Ojibwa/Chippewa ("People Who Draw on Birchbark") The
prophecies and visions of the elders were written on birchbark scrolls
and on sand and rock as well.
Subgroups include the Outchiou (Ojibway) Marameg, Noquet, and the Salteaux
(northwestern band) (pronounced "So-to"). The term Bungi refers
to the Plains Ojibway, the Mississauga Ojibway-speaking people between
Georigan Bay and Lake Ontario after the Huron Wars. They ceded much
valuable land to the English in the middle to late 1700s. The Amikwa
(Nez Pierce). Lesser known groups include Ouasouarini, Graisse Ours
(aka Makoua), and Nameouilini.
Menominee ("Wild Rice People"). The word relates to
the prophecy mentioned above.
They were told to go west to the land where the food grows on the water
- wild rice.
Algonquin or Algonkin ("Allies"). They call themselves
Mamawinini ("Nomadic People") or Anishnabek ("True Men"
or "Real Men").
Their seven main bands are: the Kitchesipirini (Allumette/Morrison Islands,
"People of the Great River"), the Weskarini (Petite Nation
area), the Kinounchepirini (the Ottawa River area below Allumette Island),
the Matouweskarini (Madawaski River area), the Ottagoutowuemin (Ottawa
River above Allumette), the Nipissing ("People of the Small Lake"
north and south of the lake), and Nippean ("Where We Slept").
By 1785, these had become fourteen bands, the Barriere, the Baskatong,
the Gatineau/Lievre River, the Mississipi/Chats River, the Madawaska/
Bonnechere, the Mattawa, and the Nipissing. Also, the Temagami, the
Saugeen, the Temiscamingue, the Long Point, the Wolf Lake/DuMoine, the
Grand Lak, and the Ottawa River/Coulonge bands. The Algonkins of the
eastern sector from Ottawa city to Oka had become Mission Christians
by this time.
Potawatomi ("People of the Place of Fire" aka "The
Fire Nation"). This may be a clue that they are linked directly
to the central fire of the Creation story, which was moved from the
Montreal area to the Detroit/Brownstown area, part of their ancestral
land. They call themselves Neshnabek, "the People."
The Mississauga are often considered separate from the Ojibway. The
Nipissing are often considered separately from the Algonkin.
ALGONQUINS Ohio Valley Confederacy
Shawnee ("People of the South"). A large influential group
made up of many "septs." These "septs" are the Makujay,
the Piqua, and the Kispoko/Kispotaka of the Lenni-Lenape root. The Chalgotha/Chillicothe
of the Siberian root and the Telegwa/Ft. Ancient of the Mound builder
root. The Shawnee always speak of them as five septs, however, two are
split, leaving seven groups. The Prairie Confederacy under Tecumseh
was called "The Seven Nations" by 1794, but the Shawnee did
not play the dominant role.
Miami (Ohio area, related to Illinois, from Oumamik, "People
of the Peninsula").
Piankashaw (related to Miami)
Wea, closely associated with the Piankashaw
The Sac Tribes
Sauk (from Osakiwug, "People of the Yellow Clay"),
now in Iowa and Oklahoma.
Fox/Mesquaki ("People of the Red Clay"), now in Iowa
Kickapoo ("He Moves About, Standing Here and There"),
now in Oklahoma, Kansas New Mexico, and, recently, Mexico. The Mascouten
were also part of the Sac tribes.
Confederacy (Illinewek). Related to
the Prairie Algonquins.
Illinois ("Ordinary Speakers"). From ileniwe, probably
a mix of the French "il" + the Algonquin "lenni"
+ the Algonquin "weh" or "they" or the French
ending ois, as in "Quebecois."
Peoria ("He Carries a Pack")
Moingwena ("Bear Lake People")
Michigamea ("People of the Great Waters")
Kaskaskian ("Ten of Them"?)
Cahokia ("People Who Live Near the Cahokia Mounds:"
Cahokia means "Place of Wild Geese.")
Tamaroa ("People Who Live Near the Tamaroa Mounds")
Arapaho ("Wolf People"). Arapaho is a Crow word for
Enemy with Many Skins. It also may be a Pawnee word for He Who Trades.
They traditionally call themselves Kananavich or "Bison Path People."
Originally from Minnesota, the Kananavich were the first Algonquins
to move west. Now divided into northern and southern bands. Southern
are called Siksika.
Gros Ventre (from French for "Big Belly People"), a
western branch of the Arapaho.
There were three other Arapaho bands, the Woodlodge People, the Rock
People, the South People.
Cheyenne (from a Lakota word for "they speak unintelligibly").
They call themselves Tsitsista, or "The People." Ten bands.
Sutai (closely related to Cheyenne)
Arapaho and Cheyenne are not closely related, but are the only western
LANGUAGES AND BANDS
OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
(* indicates acknowledged links to Algonquin languages; others in its
grouping would presumably also be linked)
Plateau, Northern Interior Salish: Shuswap (aka Sexwepemx) Thompson
(aka Nl'akapamux) Lillooet (aka St'at'imx)
South Interior Salish:* Coeur d'Alene*, Flathead* (aka Selish), Kalispel*,
Spokan*, Colville (aka Sweelpoo), Okanagan*, Lake, Sanpoil, Nespelem,
Methow, Columbia (aka Sinkiuse) Wenatchee, Chelan, Entiat.
Coast Salishan:* Northern Salishan*: Bella Coola* (aka Nuxalk),
Central Salishan: Comox*, Pentlatch, Sechelt, Squamish*, Halkomelem
(including Cowichan, Musqueam, Chilliwack) Nooksack, Lushootseed (aka
Straits Salishan: Lummi, Songish (aka Lkungen), Sooke, Klallam (aka
Tsamosan Salish:* Quinault, Chehails*, Cowlitz*.
Southern Salish:* Tillamook*
Salishan Isolates: Haida (includes Kaigani, Masset, Skidegate)
and Tsimshian (includes Coast, Southern, Niska, and Gitksan)
Pend-d'Oreilles* (Salish?) Nisqualli* (Salish?)
Nootkan:* (includes Makah, Nitinat, Nootka* (aka Nuuchanuth))
Kwakiutlan:* Northern Kwakiutlan: Bella Bella (aka Heiltsuk), Xai Xais,
Owikeno, Haisla (aka Kitimat)
Southern Kwkiutlan: Kwakiutl* (aka Kwakwaka'wakw)
Yachi, Kutenai,* Ritwan,* (includes Wiyot,* and Yurok,* and related
to Yukian) Yukian includes Yuki, Coast, Huchnom, and Wappo) These 65
western bands combined with the 335 Algonquin bands brings the number
of Algonquin-related peoples on this list to 400.